|AVS 54th International Symposium|
|Thin Film||Thursday Sessions|
|Session:||Computational Aspects of Thin Films|
|Presenter:||J.R. Abelson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Authors:||Y. Yang, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
J.R. Abelson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
|Correspondent:||Click to Email|
The need to coat or fill recessed features such as trenches or vias is frequently encountered in micro- and nano-fabrication processes. Chemical vapor deposition is commonly used because of the combination of good conformality and high growth rate. With the continuous scaling down of feature sizes and the increase of aspect (depth/width) ratios, it has become a major challenge to maintain the growth conformality and filling efficiency. We developed a numerical model that is capable of simulating the film thickness profiles produced by CVD in trenches and vias with aspect ratios ≥ 10:1. In this model, the precursor transport is described by Knudson diffusion, and the precursor concentration and reaction rate distributions are solved numerically from the continuity equation. The evolution of the deposition profile during a filling process can also be predicted. We employ this model to understand the critical issues associated with CVD on high aspect ratio features. We show that the precursor reaction probability is the key factor that governs the deposition conformality. The model predicts the precursor reaction probability that is required to conformally coat or to completely fill trenches with aspect ratios ranging from 5:1 to 100:1. These simulations are in close agreement with the experimental profiles we have obtained for HfB2 and CrB2 films grown using single-source borohydride precursors. Traditionally the precursor reaction probability is controlled primarily by the growth temperature. We show that if a Langmuir surface reaction mechanisms is operative then the precursor pressure is a far more effective parameter to reduce the reaction probability. We have developed a new approach to obtain super-conformal coating (bottom-up filling) of high aspect ratio features, and we have demonstrated proof-of-concept with CrB2 and HfB2 films. In this method, a suppressor species is introduced into the growth system to reduce the surface reaction rate of the precursor. We simulate the deposited film profile as a function of the suppressor pressure, precursor pressure, trench aspect ratio, and the relative reaction rates of the suppressor and precursor species. We will discuss methods to optimize the filling process by varying the suppressor pressure in time during film growth.