|AVS 57th International Symposium & Exhibition|
|In Situ Microscopy and Spectroscopy Topical Conference||Tuesday Sessions|
|Session:||In Situ Microscopy/Spectroscopy – Interfacial Chemistry/Catalysis|
|Presenter:||D.A. Aurbach, Bar-Ilan University, Israel|
|Correspondent:||Click to Email|
The performance of high energy density rechargeable Li and Li ion batteries depends on passivation phenomena. On thermodynamic basis, both the negative electrodes: Li metal or lithiated carbonaceous materials and the positive electrodes: lithiated transition metal oxides are reactive with the electrolyte solutions that are relevant to these systems (polar-aprotic solvents and Li salts).
Thereby, it is highly important to understand the complicated surface chemistry the characterizes all kinds of rechargeable Li batteries. Based on understanding the correlation between surface phenomena, performance and safety features, in is possible to optimize electrolyte solutions in which irreversible phenomena and electrodes capacity fading will be minimized. Consequently, in was highly important to develop specific spectroscopic and microscopic tools that can be used in conjunction with electrochemical techniques and can be specifically suitable for such highly reactive systems. In this talk we demonstrate the development and use of in-situ FTIR spectroscopy for mapping the complicated surface reaction of Li metal electrodes in most relevant electrolyte solutions. Especially important was an approach based on internal reflection modes. The use of in-situ Raman spectroscopy for understanding lithiation processes of graphite in ionic liquids will be demonstrated. Application of spectroscopy enables to follow detrimental processes such as co-intercalation of the solvents’ cations together with Li insertion, what interferes badly with the passivation phenomena, on which the reversibility and stability of Li-graphite anodes depend. The same techniques were applied to non-aqueous electrochemistry of magnesium, in the framework of R&D of rechargeable Mg batteries. The use of EQCM was helpful in characterizing passivation free Mg electrodes, in ethereal solutions with contain magnesium organo-chloro-aluminate complex electrolytes. Highly useful for the study of surface phenomena related to Li batteries were in-situ AFM measurements, with which it was possible to follow delicate phenomena related to surface films formation, exfoliation of Li-graphite electrodes and break down and repair of passivation phenomena on both Li metal and Li graphite electrodes. The study of Mg anodes was nicely promoted by the use of in-situ STM measurements. This technique was very suitable for characterization of Mg anodes in passivation free electrolyte solutions. New directions for development of in-situ techniques suitable for highly reactive electrochemical systems, will be discussed.