|AVS 57th International Symposium & Exhibition|
|In Situ Microscopy and Spectroscopy Topical Conference||Wednesday Sessions|
|Session:||In Situ Microscopy/Spectroscopy – In Situ Nanoscale Processes|
|Presenter:||G.N. Parsons, North Carolina State University|
|Authors:||G.N. Parsons, North Carolina State University
B. Gong, North Carolina State University
J.S. Jur, North Carolina State University
C. Oldham, North Carolina State University
K. Lee, North Carolina State University
|Correspondent:||Click to Email|
Many new product applications related to packaging, filtration, protection and others offer substantial opportunities and raise new demands for polymer/inorganic thin film integration and surface modification. In-situ transmission infrared spectroscopy can provide critical insight into reaction mechanisms that proceed during inorganic film deposition on organics. We are particularly interested in low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) which ideally proceeds through a binary sequence of self-limiting surface reactions to form highly conformal and uniform films on high surface area structures. In-situ IR spectroscopy allows us to probe and identify specific polymer/precursor reaction mechanisms that occur during precursor and reactant exposure. Typical atomic layer deposition precursors and reactants include trimethylaluminum (TMA), diethyl zinc (DEZ) and water, and polymer materials studied to date include polypropylene, polyamide-6, polyesters (such as polybutylene terephthalate), cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and others. We have investigated deposition reactions on planar polymer sheets as well as micro- and nano-scale polymer fibers.
In-situ IR transmission data demonstrates that typical non-reactive materials such as polypropylene will take up precursors with minimal precursor/polymer reaction, resulting in subsurface alumina nucleation. Polymers with more reactive backbone or side chain groups, such as cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol or polyamide-6 react readily with the precursor. For example, when polyamide-6 is exposed to TMA, N-H and C-O stretching modes decrease markedly, indicating that TMA attacks the electrophilic carbon atom in the carbonyl group leading to methyl insertion and formation of C-O-Al- and C-CH3 bonds. Electron micrograph images of polyamide fibers after TMA exposure confirms significant extent of reaction. Deposition on cellulose cotton fibers, however, shows primarily surface adsorption, resulting in true ALD growth and highly conformal film coatings by TEM. We will show details of the in-situ transmission ALD reactor, and illustrate how the tool is especially amenable and adaptable to in-situ surface reaction analysis on polymer fiber networks.