|AVS 57th International Symposium & Exhibition|
|Energy Frontiers Topical Conference||Wednesday Sessions|
|Session:||CIGS, CZTS and Chalcopyrite Films & Solar Cells|
|Presenter:||H.W. Hillhouse, Purdue University|
|Authors:||H.W. Hillhouse, Purdue University
R. Agrawal, Purdue University
Q. Guo, Purdue University
G.M. Ford, Purdue University
|Correspondent:||Click to Email|
The development of suitable colloidal nanocrystal inks are a key step in the development of low-cost solar cells since they enable the use of fast and inexpensive coating processes such as spray coating and roll coating to form a thin film photoabsorbing layer. Chalcopyrite structure copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGSe) and stannite or kesterite copper zinc tin sulfides (CZTS) are key photoabsorbing materials for thin film solar cells due to their near ideal band gap and their serendipitous defect chemistry (CIGSe) and Earth abundance (CZTS). Although several methods have been reported that describe the synthesis of CIGSe and related nanocrystals, precise control of the composition for these ternary and quaternary compounds has been problematic . We have reported the solution-phase synthesis of stoichiometric chalcopyrite structured CuInSe2 nanocrystals , Cu(In,Ga)S2 , and the very first synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals . The syntheses proceed rapidly from elemental and halide reagents via a simple batch reaction without “hot injection” in a single component coordinating solvent. We have demonstrated the use of these nanocrystals for low-cost solar cells by fabricating devices without using any oxygen-free techniques (after NC synthesis) and employing a scalable roll coating method. The nanocrystal inks are first coated on a back contact (Mo coated sodalime glass in this case). The nanocrystal layer is then easily consolidated into large crystalline domains by a brief thermal treatment in a selenium rich atmosphere to prevent selenium loss or to replace sulfur with selenium. The fabricated cells are robust and increase in efficiency with time, exhibiting similar serendipitous defect chemistry as layers formed by vacuum co-evaporation. We have fabricated solar cells by roll coating CIGS or CZTS nanocrystal-inks over large areas. CIGS devices fabricated by roll coating over large areas with a device architecture of Mo/CIGSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO/Ni/Al are (at the time of the abstract submission) 12.0% efficient under standard AM1.5G illumination. The presentation will focus on the key aspects of the nanocrystal synthesis, ink coating, nanocrystal consolidation, and device fabrication and characterization for both CIGS and CZTS solar cells.
 Hillhouse H.W. & Beard M.C., Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 14, 245 (2009).
 Guo, Q.J., Kim, S.J., Kar, M., Shafarman, W.N., Birkmire, R.W., Stach, E.A., Agrawal, R., Hillhouse, H.W., Nano Letters 8, 9, 2982 (2008).
 Guo, Q.J., Ford, G.M., Hillhouse, H.W., Agrawal, R., Nano Lett. 9, 8 3060 (2009).
 Guo, Q.J., Hillhouse, H.W., Agrawal, R., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11672 (2009).